China the land of the rising sun..

 This is a very simplified, incomplete introduction,  political, religious synopsis of China up to date  as found in the net.. . China has always been a great interest to many, and is a rising start on the world stage. 

 
Firstly the so called Chinese Unification was achieved through force of arms in the 3rd century bc, and from then until modern times, the norm for China was a unified, centralized government ruled by a monarch. No dynasty lasted for more than a few centuries, and disorder and disunity marked the decades or centuries between dynasties; each time, however, military strongmen eventually regained control and imposed centralized rule. Religious unification has never really been achieved nor has religion been eradicaated.
   
A brief Chinese Rulership chronology

Xia        about 2100 b.c. — 1600 b.c.
 *Hua Xia is used today by Chinese referring to China

Shang        about 1600 b.c. — 1100 b.c.
 *There is a very famous ancient book (written in Ming)   about the end of Shang _Feng1 Shen2 Yan3 Yi4_ (Yan Yi == historical novel)

Zhou
  Western Zhou          about 1100 b.c. — 771 b.c.
  Eastern Zhou                 770 b.c. — 226 b.c.
 Spring/Autumn            770 b.c. — 476 b.c.
 Warring States           475 b.c. — 221 b.c.
        *Western and eastern Zhou are the same dynasty, ruled by the  same family.  The difference was eastern Zhou moved the capital to an eastern city.
        *Spring/Autumn time was one of the most important time in Chinese  history.  Most Chinese philosophies developed at this time. Among          them are: Confucianism and Taoism.
 *_Art of War_ was written at this time by Sun Zi         
  *Eastern Zhou was very weak, and was divided into lots of smaller  states (and bigger states, such as Jin, was later divided into several states) fighting with each other.
 *The account of this period of history was later written by   Sima Qian of Han dynasty.  Shi3 Ji4 is one of the best Chinese   history and literature book.  Lots of its section were in the literature text book.  Every Chinese is supposed to read it 🙂
 *Another book, “Dong Zhou Li Guo Zi” (How Eastern Zhou States    Created), is supposed to be the text book for politicians.

Qin        221 b.c. — 207 b.c.
 *Perhaps the darkest time in Chinese history.  Qin was one of the   warring state, but managed to united China again.  The worst  thing they did was all the books were ordered to be  burned.       
*Qin started building the Great Wall, although the one we see now    was rebuilt much later in Ming.

Han
        Western Han     206 b.c. — 24
        Eastern Han      25 — 220
 *Again, the two are considered to be the same dynasty.  Eastern   Han had its capital in todays Luo-yang (Luo is a river. Yang  refers to the shadow of river bank here, which means north of    river Luo) which is EAST of the old capital, todays Xian.
 *The so called Han Chinese used when trying to distinguish other minorities inside China came from here.
 *China became strong at this time, especially after Wu Di.
 *Dong Zhongsu advised Wu Di to use Confucianism as the ONLY philosophy.  Other novel ideas developed at eastern Zhou   was only discouraged, but outlawed.  I list Dong most worst  only next to Qin Shi Hunag.
 *China had many wars with Hun on north.  Wu Di started a new way  of solving the problem: sending his daughter as wife of Hun Khan.  [According to Jin, Wu Di stopped the custom of sending his  daughter to the huns. He defeated them after 40 years of battle.]

 

Three Kingdoms
 Wei                     220 — 265
  Shu Han                 221 — 263
 Wu                      222 — 280
 *Once again, the last emperor could and control the kingdom again.   China was divided into three parts fighting to be the Son of   Heaven.
  *Three Kingdoms is a very famous historical novel about this period.

Jin       265 — 420
 *The winner of the fighting was the powerful general of Wei whose    son started Jin dynasty.

Northern/Southern Dynasties
  *Jin did not have a good contral of China either.  China was divided in all kind of combinations.
 Southern Dynasties:
        Song                     420 — 479
        Qi                       479 — 502
        Liang                    502 — 557
        Chen                     557 — 589
   Northern Dynasties:
        Northern Wei             386 — 534
        Eastern Wei              534 — 550
        Northern Qi              550 — 577
        Western Wei              535 — 556
        Northern Zhou            557 — 581

 *Some kings in northern dynasties were not Han.

Sui                              581 — 618
 *Like Qin, this is a very short dynasty ruled by very cruel emperors.
 *But bad reader seems like to make big things. The longest channel was built at this time just like Great Wall was built in Qin.

Tang                             618 — 907
  *This is perhaps the best time in Chinese time.  The oversea Chinese in early days like to use Tang Shan referring to their homeland.
  *Many good poems were written in this time.  I believe no one so far has been able to top the great poets at that time.
 *Tnag was a very liberal (perhaps most liberal) period in Chinese history.

Five Dynasties
        Later Liang              907 — 923
        Later Tang               923 — 936
        Later Jin                936 — 946
        Later Han                947 — 950
        Later Zhou               951 — 960
        *Can you believe the speed of dynasty change here?

Song
        Northern Song            960 — 1127
        Southern Song           1127 — 1279
 *Song is the turning point of Chinese history (More actually,after Song Shen Zong). The society became conservative from then. Lots of bad Chinese traditions started from here.
  *Zu Xi carried Confucianism forward.
 *Ci2, poetry written to certain tunes with strict tonal pattern and rhyme schemes in fixed number of lines and words, was fully developed now.
 *Song was not a strong dynasty in history. It was consistently invaded by others from north.  Song was in war with Liao and was  later defeated by Jin at north.  Song retreated to south ofYangtze. This was why northern and southern Song was named.
 *During southern Song period, north part of China was ruled by Jin (1115 — 1234)

Yuan                            1271 — 1368
  *Jin had not had the trance to win Song.  Mongolian was the
 winner after all.
  *Chinese culture was preserved under Mongolian ruling.  It was Mongolian who were affected by Chinese culture.  
  *It was the time Chinese opera developed.
  *Beijing was the capital for the first time.

Ming                            1368 — 1644
 *The Great Wall was rebuilt.  It was what we see today.
 *In literature, the novel was fully developed at this time.  Some of the novels, such as Three Kingdoms, were the best ever.
 *In late Ming, the so called capitalism buds started in some developed areas such as lower Yangtze Delta.  Some quite big silk-making shops with one hundred some employee were recorded.

Qing                            1644 — 1911
 *China was ruled by non-Han once again.
 *Although China started becoming conservative after Song, Qing  made the development stopped.

The Qing dynasty took over China just when the world was about to enter to the 19th century of industrialization and modernization. It was during the time of the Qing the Chinese gain the characteristics or the image of having pigtails, shaven forehead and clothings that are associated with the Manchus.

 
1949 Communistic China, the People’s republic of China.
 
Communists and other Chinese groups have certainly have tried to eradicate all religion in china. The Republic of China was founded in 1949, and tremendous upheavals occurred throughout China culminating in the Cultural Revolution. Christians, Muslims along with others religious groups, even  the main Chinese population suffered.
 

Religion in China

Today, there are five major government-sanctioned religions: Daoism, Buddhism, Islam, Roman Catholicism and Protestant Christianity. Religious practices are still often tightly controlled by government authorities.  Chinese over age 18 in the PRC are permitted to be involved with officially sanctioned  Christianity is now one of the biggest religions in China, second only to Buddhism, and next is  Islam. All religions in Chnina have to competent with Chinese Nationalism, and also with Communism, and both are religions by themselves now as well. Ironically what many in the west do often know about Chinese religions is related to the many Kung Fu- action movies, clearly a religion now too.

“The Qin and Han Dynasties: China’s Early Dynasties and The Emergence of Taoism  Now even though Taoist religion can be traced back to the 4th century B.C.E., it did not become popular in Chinese society until the reign of the Han Dynasty. Starting in 206 B.C.E., the Han ruled over China for four centuries.  The Han Dynasty was not the first ruling class of China. The Shang, which ruled during the years 1500-1050 B.C.E., is the first known Chinese dynasty. Shang rulers divided the vast land into separate regions, often resulting in conflict amongst local rulers. In 1050 B.C.E., the Shang were overthrown by the Zhou. The Zhou Dynasty became known for their elaborate central courts and artwork. Their rule however, came to an end in 256 B.C.E when they were defeated by the Qin Dynasty. It was during the Qin Dynasty (221-206 B.C.E.) that schools of Taoist Philosophy began to emerge. This era, also known as the “Warring States” period, was characterized by political infighting and social unease. Shi Huangdi, the famous ruler of the Qin Dynasty, built the Great Wall of China during this time as well. After his death, the reign of the Han Dynasty began.Unlike other dynasties, the Han wanted to unite China under one empire. During this period, China’s Southern and Western border were expanded and the first centralized government was established. In the Han Dynasty, Taoism was categorized into two different groups: Daojia (Philosophical) and Daojiao (Religious). It is believed that during the Han Dynasty, institutionalized Religious Taoism was founded by Chang Tao-ling. Chang Tao-ling’s primarily concern was health, ritual practices, and alchemy. Later, he took the name of T’ien Shin (The Son of Heaven), and continued to spread Taoist notions and alchemical techniques throughout the empire. Another important Religious Taoist, Heshang Gong, wrote the first commentary of Lao Tzu’s the Tao Te Ching during this period as well. Philosophical Taoism also continued to grow. Education became very important during Han rule, and more schools were being established following the teachings of Lao Tzu. It was through these teachings, that Taoism remained a staple of Chinese life. Even after the emerge of Buddhism, Taoism still remained popluar due to the importantace of the Philosophical teachings of Lao Tzu. “

“During this period of near-constant political and military strife, Buddhism found a receptive audience in China, while the influence of Confucianism waned. Buddhism had arrived in China in the 1st century ad as the religion of merchants from Central Asia. During the next three centuries, the Chinese encountered a great variety of ideas and practices identified as Buddhist. Buddhism differed markedly from earlier Chinese religions and philosophies. A universal religion, it embraced all people, regardless of their ethnicity or social status. It also had a founding figure, the Indian prince Siddhartha (Buddha), who lived during the 6th and 5th centuries bc. To many Chinese, Buddhism seemed at first a variant of Daoism, as Daoist terms were used to translate Buddhist concepts. A more accurate understanding of Buddhism became possible after Kumarajiva (343?-413?), a Buddhist monk from Central Asia, settled in Chang’an and directed several thousand Chinese monks in the translation of Buddhist texts. The Buddhist monastic establishment grew rapidly in China. By 477 there were reportedly 6,478 Buddhist temples and 77,258 monks and nuns in the north. The south was said to have 2,846 temples and 82,700 clerics some decades later. Given the traditional importance of family lines in China, it was a major step for a man to become a monk. He had to give up his surname and take a vow of celibacy, breaking from the ancestral cult that connected the dead, the living, and the unborn. Buddhists who did not become monks or nuns often made generous contributions to the construction or beautification of temples. Among the most generous patrons were rulers, in both the north and south. Women turned to Buddhism as readily as men. Although being born a woman was considered inferior to being born a man, it was also considered temporary because in the next life a woman could be reborn as a man, and women were encouraged to pursue salvation on terms nearly equal to men. China also had critics of Buddhism, who labeled it immoral, unsuited to China, or a threat to the state because monastery land was not taxed. By the end of the 6th century, critics had twice convinced the court to close monasteries and force monks and nuns to return to lay life. These suppressions did not last long, however, and no attempt was made to eliminate private Buddhist belief. “

Christianity in China is not a popular religion, particularly to it’s late entry and the early association of Christian with bad Business practices, empires as well as specially poor  Missionary approaches .

Christianity in China is a growing minority religion that comprises Protestants (called 基督教 Jī dū jiào, or Christ Religion), Catholics (天主教 Tian zhu jiao, or Lord of Heaven Religion), and a small number of Orthodox Christians. Although its lineage in China is not as ancient as beliefs such as Confucianism, Taoism, or Mahayana Buddhism, Christianity has existed in China since at least the seventh century and has gained influence over the past 200 years.  The growth of the faith has been particularly significant since the loosening of restrictions on religion by the People’s Republic since the 1970s.  Undoubtedly, Buddhism has been the most popular religion in China. Christianity was introduced into China as early as the 5th century. Christianity began to take root in a significant way in the Chinese Empire during the Qing Dynasty, and although it has remained a minority religion in China,   Further waves of missionaries came to China in the Qing (or Manchu) dynasty (1644-1911) as a result of contact with foreign powers. Russian Orthodoxy was introduced in 1715 and Protestants began entering China in 1807. The pace of missionary activity increased considerably after the First Opium War in 1842. Christian missionaries and their schools, under the protection of the Western powers, went on to play a major role in the Westernization of China in the 19th and 20th centuries.  The Taiping Rebellion was led by a heterodox convert to Christianity, [6] and the Boxer Rebellion was in part a reaction against Christianity in China.  A significant presence did not reappear until the 13th century, when Mongols conquered China and founded the Yuan Dynasty. The Mongol court was open to Christian missionaries and even turned over the administration of parts of northern China to Christian tribesmen from Central Asia. From Rome, the pope also sent Franciscan missionaries in an effort to establish ties with Eastern Christians and to form an alliance with the Mongol empire. Italian merchants also founded some Catholic communities in major trading centers; among them were two brothers from Venice, Niccolo and Maffeo Polo, who brought along Niccolo’s son, Marco. China’s second period of Christian growth came to an end when its protectors, the Mongols, were expelled by the armies of the Ming Dynasty. Toward the end of the Ming dynasty, a new wave of Jesuit missionaries came to China. After World War II, China turned to communism, and atheism was promoted as part of the Marxist ideology of the Chinese Community Party. Religious suppression was particularly severe during the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976).

In 1793, William Carey set sail from England bound for India. Inspired years earlier by his readings of Captain Cook’s around the world voyages and the different people groups encountered, Carey determined to take the Biblical message to “heathen nations.” Undaunted by older church leaders who told him, “When God pleases to convert the heathen, he will do it without your aid or mine”, Carey learned the dialect of India and set out to proclaim the gospel to that immense populace. Because Protestant missionaries were virtually non-existent up to that point, William Carey became known as the “Father of Modern Missions.” Other Protestants soon followed in Carey’s steps and missionaries journeyed to other foreign lands including China.

The first Methodist missionaries from the United States reached China on September 4, 1847 arriving in the city of Fuchau. Moses White, Robert Maclay and Henry Hickok labored in the city of 600,000 people for ten years before they baptized their first Chinese convert, Ting Ang.
Ten more years added another 450 people to the small church in Fuchau. Such was the experience of many missionaries to China, long hours, sickness and apparent fruitless labor mix.

In 1829, the first Protestant missionary to Thailand arrived in Bangkok and began translating the New Testament into Siamese. Twenty-five year old Karl Gutzlaff of the Netherlands Missionary Society then turned his eyes toward China. First exposed to Christianity as early as the 5th century followed by other unsuccessful attempts over a period of near 1000 years, China remained a closed country with no known Chinese Christians when Gutzlaff first looked toward her. Westerners were only allowed into specific port cities along China’s coast

Journeying to China eleven different times and spending fifty years there, by the time of his death Taylor was credited with the founding of 200 missions manned by 800 missionaries influencing 125,000 Chinese converts. In addition, Taylor spent 5 years translating the New Testament of the Bible into the Ningpo dialect. The famed “Cambridge Seven”, seven intelligent and athletic young men from England joined in Taylor’s Inland Mission and labored there for most of their lives, one of the seven attempted, unsuccessfully multiple times to enter Tibet. Taylor’s China Inland Mission became the largest Protestant missionary agency in the world. Taylor died in 1905 in a village north of Canton.

In the 1860’s Protestant women in America started a movement that became known as the “Women’s Missionary Movement.” In 1878, Hudson Taylor making an unprecedented and widely criticized move began allowing single women, and later married ones, to join his mission agency and travel to China in teams preaching and ministering to the Chinese. Earlier, Taylor and other male missionaries had discovered the only practical way to reach Chinese women with the Bible message was through other women. Barred for decades from active participation in ministry, a flood of women streamed out of America into China and later on other countries.  By the turn of the century Christian women outnumbered men in the missionary ranks both overseas and at home.

 Sadly  the opium trade of western merchants drained a good portion of China’s wealth while keeping large numbers of its population in addictive squalor.  By 1900 many Chinese had enough. The already noted Boxer Rebellion ensued and many foreigners including missionaries were slaughtered in addition it is estimated that the Boxers killed 30,000 Chinese converts to Christianity. The crisis over, Chinese Christians increased in numbers threefold in the decades following the rebellion and continued to rise for the next fifty years. At that time the communists expelled all “foreign devils” and the Christian church was forced underground. One of the most famous of Chinese Christians was Watchman Nee. For 30 years he traveled China preaching the Christian message. He wrote several books, which are still read by Christians today the world-over. Arrested by Communists in China in 1952 Lee died in prison in 1972. Nee’s disciple Witness Lee traveled the world in the 60’s and 70’s starting churches and sharing Nee’s vision of a worldwide community of believers.

The Communist rise to power in China brought its religious intolerance and persecution once more forcing the Church underground for decades. As was the case in Communist Russia, thousands of church buildings were destroyed or turned into civil facilities such as schools, warehoused and factories. And as in Russia, Communist China hostility targeted traditional religions particularly Christianity.   The demise of the “Cultural Revolution” in China began with Mao’s death in 1976, and as in the former Soviet Union religions restrictions have eased and in some cases disappeared. There is reportedly a thriving Christian Church in China today.

 The first three early missionaries failed to bear fruits. The Fourth attempt which began in 1806 and ended around 1956, had moderate success, but it helped to spark the Anti-Christian Movement in the 1920’s. Since the Communist took power in 1949, Christianity have been growing steadily against the oppressions of the government. Nowadays, there are about 30,000,000 Christians in China (according to an unofficial survey).  .

The Three Early Missionaries to China. Christianity reached China as early as the 5th century, but the first three attempts of missionary to China failed to bear fruits for various reasons. The Nestorian Faith came to China during the Tang Dynasty. Unfortunately, China was not ready for this ‘new’ religion. Emperor Tang Tai Zong eagerly greeted Olopen with respect, but the king probably thought that all religions were the same, as indicated by his interest in Buddhism as well. Although quite a few Da Qin Temples were erected, most of the followers were not Chinese. This missionary eventually came to an end in China around 845 A.D., with followers still could be found in the north of China (like Mongolia). The second attempt was during the Yuan Dynasty. With the invasion of Mongolians, the Nestorian and Catholic Faith returned to China from the north, in the name of Erkeun or Arkaim. Unfortunately, with the oppression of the Mongolians on the Chinese, most people were not ready to adopt this belief that was introduced by the invaders. The third attempt (1500-1800) did not receive better treatment either. The conflict between the Chinese ritual and Christianity eventually led to the failure of the third missionary.

Summarizing the three missionaries, an important lesson is learnt; in order to spread the gospel successfully, it must penetrate the bulk of the people (like sowing seed (gospel) to the soil (people)). All three missions reached Chinese royal family and the upper classes instead of her people. Although the first mission was eagerly endorsed by the Emperor of the Tang Dynasty, its message probably was not well understood, and often confused with the Buddhist teaching (when birds came they were snatched away). The second mission was like sowing seeds on rocky places. Since most believers were Mongolians in the royal family and administration, Chinese tended to reject its message (not enough soil for the seed to take roots). The third missionary is like sowing seeds among thorns. When persecutions came (conflicts with the Chinese rituals), the Chinese gave up their believes.

The fourth missionary did finally reach the people instead of the upper classes and administration.   Although the fourth missionary (started 1807) made a big impact on the history of Christianity in China, it did stir up quite a bit of controversies. The questionable approaches and philosophies of some of the missionaries gave Christianity a bad name, which led to severe consequences. Of course it is not fair to put down all missionaries. These early missionaries did play a crucial role in establishing missionary schools and hospitals in China, which helped to modernize her. The modernization also did eventually opened up China’s door for missionary. Let’s look at some of these questionable approaches and philosophies.

Some of these questionable approaches involved the participation of some of the missionaries in the East India Trading (EIT) Co. and their involvement in the politics of their mother countries, in invading China. Ever since Kang Xi’s close door policy, no foreigners were allowed in China except merchants. Unfortunately, the East India Trading (EIT) Co., which dealt heavily in opium, had monopoly of trade in China. About the only way to gain legal access to China was by joining the EIT. However, the linkage between missionary and the EIT led to unthinkable adversities to the spread of Christianity. Some missionaries also participated in the invasion of China. Since missionaries were versed in Chinese, some of them were asked to collect vital military information before and during the wars, and translate treaties after the wars.    From the early missionaries to China, we learn two important lessons. First of all, in preaching the Gospel, one must reach the people. The bad name that some of these missionaries got themselves by joining the opium trading company and their support of the invasion of China, led to such a strong negative feeling about Christianity that persisted until the 1920s, as reflected by the Anit-Christian Movement. Once again, we should not downplay the importance of these missionaries who did a tremendous job in modernizing China, devoting their lives for the salvation of the Chinese people. They well deserve our respect and kowtows. However, some of their approaches were questionable.

 
” Islam in China began during the caliphate of ‘Uthman ibn Affan (Allayhi Rahma, ra), the third caliph. After triumphing over the Byzantine, Romans and the Persians, ‘Uthman ibn Affan, dispatched a deputation to China in 29 AH (650 C.E.,) Even before this, the Arab traders during the time of the Prophet (pbuh), had already brought Islam to China, although this was not an organized effort, but merely as an offshoot of their journey along the Silk Route (land and sea route). The Ancient Record of the Tang Dynasty describes the landmark visit. To Chinese Muslims, this event is considered to be the birth of Islam in China. To show his admiration for Islam, the emperor Yung Wei ordered the establishment of China’s first mosque. The magnificent Canton city mosque known to this day as the ‘Memorial Mosque.’ still stands today, after fourteen centuries. The Muslims who immigrated to China eventually had a great economic impact and influence on the country. They  dominated the import/export business by the time of the Sung Dynasty (960 – 1279 CE). Indeed, the office of Director General of Shipping was consistently held by a Muslim during this period. Under the Ming Dynasty (1368 – 1644 CE) generally considered to be the golden age of Islam in China, Muslims gradually became fully integrated into Han society. The Islamic mode of dress and dietary restrictions were consistently maintained, however, and not compromised. In time, the Muslims began to speak Han dialects and to read in Chinese. Well into the Ming era, the Muslims could not be distinguished from other Chinese other than by their unique religious customs.. It is reported that in the 1790’s, there was as many as 30,000 Islamic students, and the city of Bukhara, – the birthplace of Imam Bukhari, one of the foremost compilers of hadith – which was then part of China, came to be known as the “Pillar of Islam.” The rise of the Ch’ing Dynasty (1644 – 1911 CE), though, changed this. The Ch’ing were Manchu (not Han) and were a minority in China. They employed tactics of divide-and- conquer to keep the Muslims, Han, Tibetans, and Mongolians in struggles against one another. In particular, they were responsible for inciting anti-Muslim sentiment throughout China, and used Han soldiers to suppress the Muslim regions of the country. When the Manchu Dynasty fell in 1911, the Republic of China was established by Sun Yat Sen, who immediately proclaimed that the country belonged equally to the Han, Hui (Muslim), Man (Manchu), Meng (Mongol), and the Tsang (Tibetan) peoples. His policies led to some improvement in relations among these groups. After the fall of the Qing Dynasty, Sun Yat Sen, who established the Republic of China immediately proclaimed that the country belonged equally to the Han, Man (Manchu), Meng (Mongol), Hui (Muslim),  and the Tsang (Tibetan) peoples. In 1911, the provinces of Qinghai, Gansu and Ningxia fell to Muslim warlords of the family known as the Ma clique. During the Cultural Revolution (1966-76), however, the Muslims of China were persecuted along with the Buddhists and Christians, by the ultra-leftists led by Lin Biao and the Gang of Four. The Red Guards made all-out attacks on religious institutions calling them bourgeois and reactionary institutions. They attacked and defaced mosques as well as burned religious books despite government directives that the mosques must be protected After the third congress of the 11th Central committee, Communistic China, the People’s republic of China, the government finally next liberalized its policies toward religion and religious freedom was declared in 1978, According to a publication on mosques in China(1998 edition), there are now 32,749 mosques in the entire People’s Republic of China, with 23,000 in the province of Xinjiang. There are currently some eight different translations of the Qur’an in the Chinese language as well as translations in Uygur and the other Turkic languages. As always, the Muslims have often refused to be silenced. and have managed to practice their faith, sometimes against great odds, since the seventh century and they are still facing great persecutions too.
 
July 2009 The Chinese government blanketed Urumqi, the capital of China’s far western Xinjiang region, with 20,000 new security troops on Wednesday, as thousands of residents began to flee following the deadly ethnic clashes that erupted over the weekend.  “The current unrest in Xinjiang is another chapter in a long history of tensions between Han Chinese and Muslim Uighurs, but it is mostly the result of the frustrations experienced by Uighurs over the last decade as the rapid pace of Chinese development in the region has brought scores of Han Chinese migrants to Xinjiang and has displaced Uyghurs from their traditional livelihoods and communities. While the violence that has emerged on both sides of the conflict is shocking, the most surprising aspect of the events may be that the tensions had not boiled over into direct confrontations until now.” The unrest has become a major challenge for this country’s Communist leaders. This violence as an outgrowth of processes which have been ongoing in Xinjiang for the last decade. During that time, China has invested more in the development of this region than anytime previously. In doing so, however, they have largely excluded the Uyghurs from the decision-making process. Furthermore, this development has brought many Han Chinese to the region seeking their fortunes, which has served to displace many Uyghurs from their traditional communities and livelihoods. The Uyghurs are a Turkic speaking Muslim people who share more culturally and historically with people to the west of Xinjiang, particularly in former Soviet Central Asia, than they do with the Han Chinese. Physically, Uyghurs do not look like Han Chinese. Their physical types are much more diverse given that Central Asia has long been a crossroads of civilizations, and they have many European physical characteristics that would likely distinguish them from the Han.

Finally, political repression that became more pronounced during the later 1990s in Xinjiang intensified following September 11, 2001. With the advent of the Global War on Terror, the Chinese state has increasingly justified more brutal crackdowns on Uyghur political dissent as part of its contribution to the Global War on Terror. At the same time, Han Chinese coming to the region to seek their fortunes in China’s continued development boom do not understand the Uyghurs’ dissatisfaction or the violent response this dissatisfaction has elicited.” The tension between Han Chinese and Uyghurs has a long history reaching back at least 250 years. In the late 19th century, a revolt pushed the Qing out of the region for several years, and in the 1930s and 1940s Uyghur attempts to establish sovereign states in the region resulted in short-term independent states in areas of Xinjiang. In this sense, what is happening today has a very long history.

 
For half a Century I have often wondered why the Gospel of Jesus Christ has not been proclaimed more in China, for God is not at fault here.. we all are..
 
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